What is ‘Web3?’ Many things, most of which don’t yet exist

The pandemic lockdowns, the emergence of the blockchain, the metaverse, and the unchecked energy of Huge Tech have many individuals desirous about what the net of the long run will appear like, and whether or not it will possibly evolve away from the worst tendencies of as we speak’s on-line world. And the time period Web3 has come to symbolize one imaginative and prescient for what it may all appear like.

When the World Extensive Internet first grew to become a phenomenon within the Nineteen Nineties, it was a reasonably static medium, and plenty of web sites appeared like little greater than digital variations of print brochures. That started to alter in an enormous method within the early 2000s. Internet companies reminiscent of Gmail had been much more interactive and app-like than people who preceded them. The online additionally grew to become extra participatory, which led to an explosion of user-created content material, first in consumer teams and blogs and in a while social networks reminiscent of Friendster, MySpace, and Fb (now Meta).

This new wave of richer experiences was often known as Internet 2.0 on the time, and over the previous twenty years it’s created huge wealth, reshaped industries, and exerted profound affect on how we stay within the twenty first century. However the internet as we now comprehend it has additionally seen all types of issues, from cybercrime to surveillance capitalism to widespread misinformation and a quickly worsening erosion of belief. Web3, by its design, may provide higher resistance to these issues.


Whereas there’s nobody official definition of the time period, when individuals say “Web3” they often imply a decentralized, blockchain-inspired internet structure that offers customers extra management over their digital content material and forex, and the place transactions rely far much less on trusting a government reminiscent of a financial institution or a tech platform operator.

Folks had been talking about “Web 3.0” even again when Internet 2.0 was an rising idea. However curiosity in Web3 seems to have gone up markedly throughout the bizarre quasi-recovery from the pandemic. Google searches for “Web3” have elevated sixfold because the finish of July, and the quantity continues to rise. Not all of the curiosity is constructive, although: On Twitter, Web3 boosters are joined by lots of individuals calling it an exaggeration of what the blockchain can do, or only a rip-off.

It’s true that many of the individuals speaking about Web3 come from the cryptocurrency world. Cryptocurrency is the primary and largest use of the blockchain, and Web3 proponents assume that blockchain expertise—which creates a safe, shared repository of transactions that no single entity controls—can do much more. The blockchain could give customers a solution to carry their social content material (and, maybe, their fame) with them between social websites as an alternative of having it locked to Meta, Twitter, or TikTok. It would type the inspiration of a brand new type of market for individuals promoting bodily or digital items, as NFTs (nonfungible tokens) are already doing.

It’s additionally true that solely items of Web3 exist as we speak. The remainder is aspirational. Constructing, then scaling, the applied sciences wanted to meet the Web3 imaginative and prescient would require heaps of time, cash, and cooperation.

Open requirements

The magic of the unique internet was that everyone agreed to run their websites on a typical, open-source protocol—HTML. Everyone may use it and no one owned it. However there is no common internet protocol that lets anyone share social content material throughout social networks, or to switch cash to family and friends regardless of what money app or crypto pockets they use.

Within the absence of such public protocols, venture-backed tech firms had been in a position to provide such companies by way of their very own proprietary platforms. Meta owns the dominant social community platform, monetizing the private knowledge of its customers. Amazon gives the dominant e-commerce platform, monetizing customers and charging rents to third-party sellers. Apple and Google function and monetize the dominant cell app shops, promoting their very own cell companies and charging rents from third-party app builders. And so forth.

This kind of structure has in lots of circumstances favored the actually massive platforms, leaving the crumbs to smaller ones. It’s concentrated lots of revenue and market energy within the arms of only a few Huge Tech firms.


Constructing a metaverse bottom-up on high of open requirements is like constructing an important metropolis.”

Ari Yahya, Andreessen Horowitz

“By advantage of their management of all knowledge, they management each interplay between customers on the platform, every consumer’s means to seamlessly exit and swap to different platforms, content material creators’ potential for discovery and distribution, all flows of capital, and all relationships between third get together builders and their customers,” wrote Andreessen Horowitz cryptocurrency lead Ari Yahya in a 2018 blog post.

A extra decentralized system, in principle, may permit for direct relationships or transactions amongst customers, patrons, creators, and sellers.

“Web3 is concerning the creator financial system, the place customers personal the information and the financial rewards related to the web worth they create,” says Matthew Gould, founder and CEO of Unstoppable Domains. “Moreover, Web3 is a dedication to builders who construct on blockchains that the principles of the sport won’t ever be modified, as has occurred a number of instances with the Apple App Retailer, Fb, and Twitter prior to now.”

It’s necessary to recollect, nevertheless, that even the largest blockchains, Bitcoin and Ethereum, are as we speak nowhere large enough to deal with the dimensions of mainstream monetary companies. Many individuals are engaged on scaling up the blockchain for cryptocurrency transactions, however a range of different programs would have to be developed to handle social, e-commerce, and belief and fame companies.

Metaverse on the blockchain

As outlined by many individuals, the metaverse is additionally a Web3 expertise. That’s as a result of present internet platforms and applied sciences can’t facilitate a vital side of the metaverse—the flexibility of customers to maneuver freely between any digital house or expertise, simply as we are able to use any internet browser to navigate between websites on the internet.

New protocols could also be wanted to ensure a continuity of expertise as customers transfer from place to put within the metaverse. They’d permit us to maneuver between the metaverse domains of, say, Apple, Meta, and Amazon, and the digital id, content material, and forex we supply with us could be honored at every place.

Meta, the Huge Tech participant making the most noise concerning the metaverse, appears to acknowledge this dynamic. CEO Mark Zuckerberg has stated that Meta intends to construct “for the metaverse,” not “construct the metaverse.” Although it certainly desires to play a number one position in creating the open requirements that will govern the place, it’s not saying that the metaverse must be a self-contained, proprietary world like as we speak’s Meta.

As individuals spend increasingly more of their time in digital house, the pondering goes, they’ll purchase and accumulate extra digital items reminiscent of sport skins and different digital attire, digital artwork, digital actual property. In Internet 2.0 a consumer may purchase a brand new pores and skin (outfit) for his or her avatar in Fortnite that they’ll use solely in Fortnite, and pay for it solely with V-Bucks, which have worth solely in Fortnite. A Web3 structure may present protocols for the avatar, the attire, and the forex so that each one of these issues work anyplace throughout the metaverse.

“Constructing a metaverse bottom-up on high of open requirements is like constructing an important metropolis,” argues Andreessen Horowitz’s Yahya in an electronic mail to Quick Firm. “It’s a lot more durable, as a result of it requires a big collective of individuals to return collectively and cooperate, however the output is significantly better.

“When it really works, an important metropolis—like a real metaverse—is a dependable scaffold upon which an infinite ecosystem of experiences and entrepreneurial exercise can thrive,” Yahya provides.

The open requirements required for the metaverse could possibly be enabled by the blockchain. Customers may use NFTs to show possession of their digital property. They may use the blockchain to handle, dealer, lease, or promote their digital stuff. Some may determine to make a enterprise of it, creating their very own digital items (represented as NFTs) or curating and brokering the products of others.


“Web3 is a sport changer for the long run of social and digital possession,” says Pierina Merino, founder of FlickPlay, a social NFT discovery app. “It allows our digital inventories to journey cross-platform with out dropping their worth and authenticity.”

Rather a lot of work needs to be performed to put the inspiration for Web3. Some of that could be political work, that means that customers, builders, tech firms, particular curiosity teams, and others must take part in a range of requirements our bodies and hammer out agreements on how the Web3 protocols would work. Solely when this work will get going, and when monetary incentives align behind it, will Web3 begin to get actual.